8. Income taxes

EUR 1,000 2016 2015

Income taxes from business operations -8 -2
Taxes for previous accounting periods -3 2
Withholding taxes paid abroad -3,783 -6,058
Change in withholding tax accrual 4,278 -2,359
Income taxes total 484 -8,417

The company has not deducted research and development costs amounting to EUR 76,986 (73 003) thousand in its taxation. The amount can be deducted over an indefinite period with amounts that the company may freely decide. The company has no tax losses at the end of 2015 and 2016. Other deductible temporary differences amount to EUR 2,322 (2,241) thousand. No deferred tax assets have been recognised on these capitalisations because of the uncertainty about utilising them.