Accounting principles for the consolidated financial statements

Corporate information

Tecnotree is a global supplier of telecom IT solutions, providing products and services for charging, billing, customer care, and messaging and content services. Tecnotree has subsidiaries and branch offices in 12 countries.

The Group’s parent company is Tecnotree Corporation, which is domiciled in Espoo, Finland and its registered address is Finnoonniitynkuja 7, 02770 Espoo. Tecnotree Corporation is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki (TEM1V). A copy of the consolidated financial statements can be obtained on the Internet at www.tecnotree.com or from the head office of the Group’s parent company at Finnoonniitynkuja 7.

The Board of Directors of Tecnotree Corporation has approved the publishing of these financial statements. According to the Finnish Limited Liability Companies Act, shareholders have the right to approve or reject the financial statements in the Annual General Meeting held after the publication of the financial statements. The Annual General Meeting also has the right to make a decision to amend the financial statements.

Basis for preparation for the consolidated financial statements

Tecnotree’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the international financial reporting standards (IFRS) adopted by the EU, applying the IAS and IFRS standards and SIC and IFRIC interpretations in force on 31 December 2015. International Financial Reporting Standards, referred to in the Finnish Accounting Act and in ordinances issued based on the provisions of the Act, refer to the standards and to their interpretations adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The notes to the consolidated financial statements also conform to Finnish accounting and corporate legislation.

The consolidated financial statements are prepared on the historical cost basis, apart from the exceptions mentioned later in these accounting principles.

The consolidated financial statements are presented in Euros, which is the functional and presentation currency of the parent company. Unless otherwise stated, the financial statement information is presented in thousands of Euro. All figures presented are rounded, so the total of separate figures might differ from the total presented. Key indicators are calculated using exact values. The comparable figures presented in text sections are in brackets.

Going concern basis

Uncertainty factors

Tecnotree has significant uncertainty factors relating to the continuity of its operations. The company’s risks and uncertainties in the near future relate to financing, projects, to their timing, to trade receivables and receivables from construction contracts and to changes in foreign exchange rates. Having sufficient cash funds is the biggest single risk. The financing agreement contains covenants that create risk.

The company has sales in several countries where the country’s central bank has a shortage of foreign currency. This causes additional delays in payments, costs and even the risk of not receiving payment at all.

In addition Tecnotree has a risk affected by the negative shareholders’ equity of the parent company.

The uncertainty factors relating to Tecnotree’s operations are explained in more detail in section “Risks and uncertainty factors” in the Board of Directors’ report. Financial risk management is described in note 24 of the consolidated financial statements. Information about the restructuring proceedings is disclosed in note 29.

Basis for applying the going concern principle

The consolidated financial statements of Tecnotree Corporation have been prepared in accordance with the going concern principle. This is justified on the following grounds:

Tecnotree’s business operations have been loss-making for several years. One key reason for this has been the decline in sales of old products, for which sales of new products have not fully managed to compensate. In 2017, Tecnotree will continue to focus on stringent control of operating expenses while launching its new open source products.

The company’s financial situation has been tight for the past couple of years. One contributing factor has been two exceptionally large customer projects obtained in 2011 and 2012 that originally had a combined value of USD 54.6 million. It had been agreed that the payments for these projects would mainly take place towards the end of the projects. The first project was completed in an agreement made with the client in January 2015. At the end of 2016 the company still had recognised receivables of EUR 6,0 million from the other project in its balance sheet. The company estimates that it will bring this project to a conclusion in 2017. The company does not intend in future to undertake projects of such a large scale. Instead it will make customer agreements in which the projects consist of smaller elements, for which payment is received more quickly and that are easier to manage.The company recognized no income for the two projects mentioned above during 2016 apart from exchange rate differences on receivables for the projects. The cost savings programme, started during the fourth quarter 2016, and other one-time items decreased the results.

The company’s financial situation continues to be very tight. As a result of this, its cash position and liquidity are critical. The amount of overdue trade payables has continued to increase, and the company expects its cash flow to be negative in Q2 2017.

At the time of publication of the financial statements, there is limited certainty about the sufficiency of long-term, short-term and working capital financing over the next 12 months.

Tecnotree’s management and the Board of Directors have assessed the company’s difficult financial situation and ability to continue operations. Based on this assessment, the management and the Board of Directors are of the opinion that it was appropriate to prepare the financial statements on a going concern basis. This assessment is based on the company’s ongoing restructuring programme as well as measures enhancing its operational efficiency. Furthermore, Tecnotree is negotiating with financiers on additional short-term financing in order to secure its liquidity, and taking determined measures to repatriate its receivables. The company is also negotiating on long-term external funding, which could be effected through a business transaction and restructuring.
The continuation of Tecnotree’s operations depends on the success of the aforementioned measures and the company’s ability to continue to implement its restructuring programme. Thus, the continuity of operations involves significant uncertainties.

Tecnotree has progressed well in its transformation from a service-based company into a genuinely product-based company. The advantage of a product-based company is that it attracts exceptional talent and is able to sell licenses, which increases net sales and cash flow. Product companies have a shorter revenue turnaround time, which also increases net sales and cash flow. In addition to attracting top talent, the company must continuously allocate its resources so that it is able to provide its customers with tailored projects worldwide without additional risks and expenses.

Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in accordance with IFRS requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions concerning the future. Actual results may differ from these estimates. In addition, management has to make judgments in applying the accounting principles. Information about the judgments made by management in the application of the accounting principles followed by the Group and which have the most significant impact on the financial statements is given in the section “Accounting principles requiring management judgments and key sources of estimation uncertainty”.

Subsidiaries

The consolidated financial statements include the parent company Tecnotree Corporation as well as its all directly or indirectly owned subsidiaries (over 50 % of the voting rights) or companies otherwise under its control. Tecnotree is considered to control an entity when Tecnotree is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. Generally, control exists when the Group holds directly or indirectly over half of the voting rights.

Intra-group holdings are eliminated using the purchase method. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date that the Group has obtained control and divested subsidiaries until the date that control ceases. Intra-group transactions, dividend distribution, receivables, liabilities and unrealised margins on intra-group transactions are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements.

Net result and total other comprehensive income for the period attributable to the owners of the parent and non-controlling interests is presented in the statement of comprehensive income. Net result attributable to non-controlling interests is presented within equity in the consolidated balance sheet separately from equity attributable to the owners of the parent. Non-controlling interests of accrued losses are recognised in the consolidated financial statements up to the maximum amount of their investment.

There are no joint arrangements or associated companies in the Group.

Foreign currency items

Group companes report their operations in their financial statements using the currency of the economic environment in which the entity primarily operates (functional currency). Transactions in foreign currencies are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing on the transaction dates or at the rate close to that on the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are valuated using the rate of exchange on the closing date. Exchange rate gains and losses arising from the translation of foreign currency transactions and of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in the income statement. Exchange gains and losses relating to business operations are treated as adjustments to net sales or to materials and services. Exchange rate gains and losses related to financing operations are recognised under financial income and expenses.

The consolidated financial statements are presented in euro, which is the functional and presentation currency of the parent company. The income and expenses for income statements and comprehensive income statements as well as items in cash flow statements of those foreign Group companies whose functional currency is not the euro, are translated into euro using the average exchange rate for the period, and balance sheet items, apart from the result for the period, at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date. Translation differences arising from eliminating the acquisition cost of foreign subsidiaries in non-euro-area, the translation of the foreign subsidiaries’ accumulated equity subsequent to acquisition, of the income statements and the balance sheets are recognised in other comprehensive income and presented as a change in equity. They are recognised in the income statement as part of the gain or loss on sale on the disposal of all or part of a foreign subsidiary.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are measured at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and any impairment losses.

Certain parts of items of property, plant and equipment are accounted for as separate items. When such a part is replaced, the costs relating to the new part are capitalised. Other subsequent expenses are capitalised only if it is probable that they will increase the economic benefits that will flow to the Group. All other costs, such as normal repair and maintenance costs, are expensed as incurred.

Property, plant and equipment are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives. Land is not depreciated. The estimated useful lives are as follows:

- Buildings and structures 25 years
- Machinery and equipment and furniture 3 –5 years
- Computing hardware and equipment 3 –5 years

The residual value of these assets and their useful lives are reassessed annually when the financial statements are prepared, and if necessary are adjusted accordingly to reflect any changes in the expectation of economic benefits expected.

Gains or losses on disposal of property, plant and equipment are recognised in the income statement.

Depreciation on an item of property, plant and equipment ceases when the item is classified as an asset held for sale, in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations.


Intangible assets

Goodwill

Goodwill arising on a business combination is recognised as the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree and any previously held equity interests in the acquiree, over the Group’s share of the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired.

Goodwill is not amortised but it is tested at least annually for impairment. For this purpose goodwill is allocated to the cash-generating units. Goodwill is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.

Other intangible assets

An intangible asset is recognised only if it is probable that the expected future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the Group, and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. Intangible assets that have finite useful lives are recorded in the balance sheet and amortisation is recognised in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the useful lives. The estimated useful life for intangible rights is 3-10 years.

Research and development costs

Research costs are charged to the income statement as incurred. Development costs for new products are capitalised when they meet the requirements of IAS 38 Intangible assets. They are amortised over the useful lives of the related products. In Tecnotree development costs are monitored on a project-by-project basis and the Group’s management decides on the capitalisation separately for each project. In order to qualify for capitalisation the following criteria are to be met: the results of a project are of use to several customers, the contents, objectives and timetable of a project are documented and a profitability calculation is prepared. Capitalisation of product development costs that fulfil IFRS criteria starts when following requirements are met: a product’s functional requirements and the plans for product industrialisation, testing and project are complete and have been approved as well as future economic benefits are expected from the product. The useful life of capitalised development expenditure is 3-5 years depending on the expected commercial life cycle, and they are amortised on a straight-line basis over this period from the start of commercial use. The consolidated balance sheet of 31 December 2016 and 31 December 2015 did not include any capitalised product development costs.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of acquisition cost and net realisable value. The valuation is based on the FIFO principle. The cost of manufactured products and work in progress includes the cost of raw materials, direct labour costs, other direct costs as well as an appropriate share of variable and fixed production overheads based on normal operating capacity. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling.

Leases

Leases are classified in accordance with the principles of IAS 17 as either finance leases or operating leases. A finance lease is defined as a lease in which the benefits and risks of ownership are substantially transferred to the lessee. An asset acquired under a finance lease agreement is recognised in the balance sheet at the lower of the fair value of the leased asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments at inception of the lease. Assets acquired under a finance lease, less accumulated depreciation, are recorded in property, plant and equipment and related obligations in interest-bearing financial liabilities, respectively. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. Depreciation on the assets acquired under a finance lease is recognised over the shorter of the depreciation period applied by the Group to comparable owned assets and the lease term.

Leases in which the lessor retains the risks and benefits of ownership are treated as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases are recognised as other operating expenses in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Impairments of tangible and intangible assets

The carrying amounts of the Group’s assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. In addition, this is done at any occurence of an indication, that the carrying amount of an asset may be impaired. In practice this determination is done separately for each group of asset. If any such indication exists, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. The recoverable amount is also annually estimated for the following assets, irrespective of whether there is any indication of impairment or not: goodwill and intangible assets not yet available for use.

The recoverable amount is determined as the higher of either present value of the future net cash flows (value in use) or fair value less costs of disposal. Impairment tests of Tecnotree are carried out based on the value in use at the cash-generating unit level.

The Group's cash-generating units are the following: Americas (North, Central and South America), Europe, MEA (Middle East and Africa) and APAC (Asia Pacific).

An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or a cash-generating unit exceeds the recoverable amount. The impairment loss is recognised in the income statement. When recognising an impairment loss, the useful life of the asset group subject to the impairment is re-evaluated.

An impairment loss is reversed if there are indications that the impairment loss may no longer exist and when conditions have changed and the recoverable amount has changed after the impairment loss was recognised. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined if no impairment loss had been recognised. An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is never reversed.

Employee benefits

Pension benefits

The Group’s pension plans conform to the regulations and practices in force in the countries where the Group operates. Statutory and any voluntary pension plans are managed by pension insurance companies.

Pension plans are classified either as defined benefit and defined contribution plans.

In defined contribution plans the Group pays fixed contributions to a separate entity. The Group has not obligation to pay any additional contributions if the insurer is not able to pay the future employee benefits. Defined contribution plan expenses are recognised in the income statement on an accrual basis.

The obligation for defined benefit pension plans is calculated using the projected unit credit method. The pension costs are recognised as expense during the period of service based on calculations prepared by authorised actuaries. The pension obligation is discounted to determine its present value using interest rates for government bonds that have maturity dates approximating to the terms of the Group’s pension obligation. The present value of the pension obligation is reduced by the fair value of the plan assets as of the end of the reporting period. The net defined pension liability (or asset) is recorded in the balance sheet.

Current service costs and net interest income or expense of the defined net liability is recorded in the income statement and presented as part of the employee benefit expenses. The remeasurement items of the defined net liability (or asset) are recorded in other comprehensive income in the period they occurred.

Past service costs are recorded as expense in the income statement at the earlier of the following dates: when the plan amendment or curtailment occurs, or when the entity recognises related restructuring costs or termination benefits.


Other long-term employee benefits

In addition to defined benefit plans, Tecnotree has other long-term employee benefits. They are presented separately from the defined benefit plans. The related benefits are such that personnel in certain subsidiaries or branch offices are entitled to receive cash compensation when employment ends. The related liability is recognised in the balance sheet.

Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognised in the balance sheet when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, it is probable that the obligation will have to be settled, and the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated. If it is possible to obtain compensation for some of the obligation from a third party, the compensation is recognised as a separate asset, but only when it is virtually certain that the compensation will be received.

A provision for restructuring is recognised when the Group has drawn up a detailed and formal restructuring plan and the restructuring has either commenced or the plan has been announced publicly. A plan for restructuring shall contain at least the following information: the business concerned, the principal locations affected, the location, function and approximate number of employees who will be compensated for having their services terminated, the type of expenditure that will be incurred, and when the plan will be implemented.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence of uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity. Such present obligation that probably does not require settlement of a payment obligation and the amount of which cannot be reliably measured is also considered to be a contingent liability. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

Income tax

The income tax expense in the income statement consists of current tax, based on the taxable profit for the period and deferred tax. Current tax is calculated on the taxable profit using the tax rate and based on the tax legislation in force in each country. The resulting tax is adjusted by any tax relating to previous years. Tax effects related to transactions recognised in the income statement or other events are recognised in the income statement. If the taxes are related to items of other comprehensive income or to transactions or other events recognised directly in equity, income taxes are recognised within the respective items.

Deferred tax is calculated using the balance sheet liability method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognised for the goodwill which is permanently non-deductible or for the undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries to the extent it is probable that the difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates enacted by the balance sheet date or substantially enacted tax rates. Deferred tax liabilities are mainly recognised in full, but deferred tax assets are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable income will be available against which they can be utilised. The conditions for recognition of any deferred tax asset are evaluated at the end of each reporting period.


Revenue recognition

At Tecnotree, net sales comprise revenue recognised from project deliveries and goods and service deliveries from which indirect taxes, discounts and exchange rate differences have been deducted.

Construction Contracts

Revenue from project deliveries is recognised in accordance with IAS 11 Construction Contracts. Project revenue and expenses are recognised in the income statement in proportion to the stage of completion on the balance sheet date, once the outcome of the project can be estimated reliably. The outcome can be estimated reliably when the anticipated revenue and costs of the contract and the progress of the project can be estimated reliably and when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the project will flow to the Group.

The stage of completion of a project is determined for each contract by the proportion of the estimated total contract costs accounted for by the costs incurred for work performed to date (cost-to-cost method). The revenue recognition for a project will start when the outcome of the project can be estimated reliably. The progress of a project is regularly monitored and is based on several factors including deliveries made or likely to be made, completion of customer obligations etc. Costs may include those that maybe incurred before receipt of formal customer order.

The stage of completion method of revenue recognition is based on estimates of the expected revenue and costs associated with the contract and on estimating the progress of the project. The cost estimates for the projects are monitored regularly in the management’s revenue review and the revenue and expenses recognised in the income statement are revised if the estimates of the outcome of the project change. The accumulated effect due to the change in the estimates is recognised in the period when the change is known for the first time and its amount can be estimated.

If the outcome of a project cannot be estimated reliably, revenue is recognised only to the extent of project costs incurred. This method of recognition is typically applied in first delivery projects for new products or when a delivery project contains a significant amount of customisation for individual customers. The margin on the project is recognised on final acceptance. This method of revenue recognition requires management estimates and judgment. Issues related to these are described later in the accounting principles section “Accounting principles requiring management judgments and key sources of estimation uncertainty”.

Construction work in progress is stated at the aggregate amount of revenue recognised less the invoiced amount. Project costs recognised in income statement include all costs directly related to the Group’s construction contracts and the allocation of fixed and production overheads.

A project is considered onerous if its costs exceed total project revenue. The expected loss is then recognised as an expense immediately.

Sale of products and services

Revenue from the sale of goods and services is recognised in accordance with IAS 18 Revenue. Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and benefits of ownership have been transferred to the buyer and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably and it is probable that the related economic benefits will flow to the Group. Revenue from services is recognised when the services have been rendered and when a flow of economic benefits associated with the service is probable. Supplementary deliveries that are often sold separately such as maintenance, licences, training, documentation and spare parts are examples of goods and service deliveries. Revenue from fixed-term maintenance contracts is normally recognised over the contract period on a straight-line basis.


Definition of operating result, adjusted operating result and adjusted profit for the period

IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements does not define the term ‘operating result’. Tecnotree Group has defined it as follows: operating result is the net sum obtained after adding other operating income to net sales and then deducting purchasing costs adjusted by the change in stocks of finished products and work in progress, employee benefit expenses, depreciation, amortisation and any impairment losses, and other operating expenses. Changes in the fair values of derivative financial instruments entered into for hedging purposes are included in the operating result (Tecnotree does not apply hedge accounting). All other income statement items are presented below the operating result. Exchange rate differences are included in operating result if they arise from items related to business operations otherwise they are recognised in finance items.

The Group’s adjusted operating result and the result for the period are one-time costs. Events that occur only once or very seldom are recorded as one-time costs. These events can be for example business disposals, restructurings, impairment losses or costs for legal proceedings.

Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

Non-current assets or a disposal group as well as assets and liabilities related to discontinued operations are classified as held for sale if its carrying amount will be recovered mainly through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. Non-current assets held for sale as well as assets classified as held for sale that relate to a discontinued operation are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Depreciation on these assets ceases on classification as held for sale.

Financial assets and liabilities

Financial assets

The Group´s financial assets are classified in the following two categories: financial assets at fair value through profit or loss held for trading as well as loans and receivables. Financial assets are classified when originally acquired based on their purpose of use. All purchases and sales of financial assets are recognised on the transaction date. Recognition of financial assets takes place when the Group has lost the contractual right to cash flows or when it has substantially transferred the risks and rewards outside the Group.

The financial assets at fair value through profit and loss comprise assets held for trading that in the Tecnotree Group include the positive fair value of the currency derivatives and interest rate swaps.

Loans and receivables include trade receivables and other receivables measured at amortised cost less any impairment. The Group records impairment on trade receivables when there is objective evidence that the receivable will not be fully recoverable. Financial difficulties, probable bankruptcy and default or significant delays in payments of the debtor are evidence of the receivables being impaired. An impairment loss or its possible reversal is recorded in the income statement.

Bank deposits with maturities of more than 3 months are also classified as loans and receivables.

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash in hand and at bank and other short-term bank deposits with maturities less than three months.

 

Financial liabilities

The Group’s financial liabilities are categorised into financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss (foreign currency derivatives with negative fair values) and other financial liabilities (financial liabilities at amortised cost). Other financial liabilities comprise for example bank loans and trade payables of the Group. The financial liabilities are classified as current unless the Group has an unconditional right to postpone the payments more than 12 months from the reporting date. A financial liability (or part of the liability) is not derecognised until the liability has ceased to exist, that is, when the obligation identified in a contract has been fulfilled or cancelled or is no longer effective. Bank overdrafts are included within borrowings in current financial liabilities in the balance sheet.

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently at fair value at the end of each reporting period. Other financial liabilities are initially recognised at fair value adjusted by major transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, these liabilities are stated at amortised cost calculated using the effective interest method.

Borrowing costs (mainly interest costs) directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalised in the balance sheet as part of the carrying amount of the asset. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. Other borrowing costs are recorded as expense in the period in which they incur.

Derivative financial instruments

The derivative contracts entered into by the Tecnotree Group are currency forward contracts and options and interest rate swaps.

The Group does not apply hedge accounting as defined under IAS 39 although the derivatives are used to hedge trade receivables denominated in foreign as well as the Group´s bank loans.

Derivative instruments are classified as financial assets or liabilities held for trading. Derivatives are fair valued. The fair value of the derivative contracts is determined by using market rates of the counterparty for instruments with similar maturity. Gains and losses arising from changes in realised and unrealised fair values are recognised in the income statement in the period they incur.

Accounting principles requiring management judgments and key sources of estimation uncertainty

To prepare the consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRSs the Group management has to make estimates and assumptions concerning the future. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions. In addition management has to make judgments in the application of the accounting principles.

These estimates mainly relate to revenue recognition and the valuation of trade receivables and goodwill.

The projects delivered and services rendered by the Group are often large, complicated and financially significant. The Group management has to make judgments concerning the circumstances and conditions related to customer projects that may affect the timing of recognitions of project revenue and profitability of the project in its entirety. Such factors include assignment of sufficient number of skilful employees to each project or for example factors in the functioning of international and especially emerging markets that may partly lie out of control of the Group or the customers. The completion of projects often requires new technical solutions that may cause unpredictable problems, delays and additional costs.

Trade receivables are measured at amortised cost less any impairment. The Group records impairment on trade receivables when there is objective evidence that the receivable will not be fully recoverable. This evaluation is done at the end of each reporting period. Additional information on impairment losses are disclosed in note 7 to the consolidated financial statements.

The Group tests goodwill at least yearly for impairment and evaluates indications of impairment as stated in the accounting principles above. The recoverable amount from the cash-generating units is determined using calculations that are based on value in use and require the use of estimates. These calculations require use of estimates to a significant extent. Additional information on impairment tests are disclosed in note 13 to the consolidated financial statements.

As of 1 January 2016, the Tecnotree Group has applied the following new and amended standards:

Annual Improvements to IFRSs, collection of amendments 2012–2014 (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016): In the Annual Improvements procedure, all the minor and less urgent changes to the standards are gathered together and carried out once a year. Changes apply to four standards. The effects of the amendments vary depending on the standard but are not material.

• Amendments to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements: Disclosure Initiative (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The amendments clarify the IAS 1 guidance with respect to materiality, the aggregation of items in the income statement and balance sheet, the presentation of headings, the structure of the financial statements and the accounting principles. Minor changes have been made to the presentation of Tecnotree’s consolidated financial statements.

• Amendments to IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 38 Intangible Assets – Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortisation (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016): The amendments prohibit the depreciation of intangible assets on the basis of sales revenue. Exceptionally, assets can be depreciated on the basis of sales revenue only if revenue and consumption of the intangible asset are highly correlated. Sales income-based depreciation methods are not applicable to property, plant and equipment. The amendments had no effect on Tecnotree's consolidated financial statements

Other new or amended standards and interpretations have no effect on the consolidated financial statements.

The preparation of financial statements under IFRS means that Group management must necessarily make certain estimates and judgements concerning the application of the accounting principles. Information about such considerations made by the management when applying the corporate accounting principles with the greatest influence on the figures presented in the financial statements are explained under the item ‘Accounting policies requiring consideration by management and crucial factors of uncertainty associated with estimates’.

New and amended standards and interpretations to be applied in future financial periods

The Tecnotree Group has not yet applied the following new or revised standards and interpretations published by the IASB. The Group will introduce each standard and interpretation as of its effective date or, if the effective date is some other date than the first day of the fiscal period, as of the beginning of the fiscal period following the effective date.

* The regulation has not been approved for application within the EU on 31 December 2016.

IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): The new standard replaces the current IAS 18 and IAS 11 standards and their related interpretations. IFRS 15 includes a five-step model for the recognition of revenue with respect to the timing and amount. Revenue is recognised as control is passed, either over time or at a point in time. The standard also increases the amount of disclosures in the notes to the financial statements. The effects of IFRS 15 on Tecnotree’s consolidated financial statements have been assessed as follows:

  • The key concepts of IFRS 15 have been analysed with respect to different revenue flows. These include own licences and their maintenance, third-party licences and their maintenance, and the sale of work and services.
  • The standard will be adopted at the beginning of 2018, using a partly retroactive approach and practical tools. The company will apply this standard to each previous reporting period presented.
  • The IFRS 15 project has been launched.

• Clarifications to IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): The clarifications have been included in the evaluation of the effects of IFRS 15 described above.
• IFRS 9 Financial Instruments and its amendments (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): IFRS 9 replaces the current IAS 39. The new standard includes revised guidance on the recognition and measurement of financial instruments. It also incorporates a new expected loss impairment model to be used for specifying impairment recognised on financial assets. The general provisions regarding hedge accounting have also been revised. The provisions included in IAS 39 concerning the recognition and derecognition of financial instruments remain unchanged. Assessments indicate that the impacts of IFRS 9 on Tecnotree’s consolidated financial statements will be slight.

• IFRS 16 Leases* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019): The new standard replaces IAS 17 and related interpretations. IFRS 16 requires lessees to recognise leases as lease payment obligations and related asset items in the balance sheet. Balance sheet entry is very similar to the accounting treatment of finance leases under IAS 17. There are two concessions with regard to recognition of leases in the balance sheet, relating to leases with a short term of less than 12 months and leases in respect of assets valued at no more than USD 5,000. For lessors, accounting treatment will largely remain the same as under the current IAS 17. The Group has started the preliminary assessment of the effects of the standard. Based on that, it is estimated Tecnotree’s lease payment obligation in the consolidated financial statements and balance sheet.

• Amendment to IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows – Disclosure Initiative* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2017). The amendments seek to enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities – both those and those without an effect on cash flow – arising from financing activities. The amendment affects the notes to Tecnotree’s consolidated financial statements.

• Amendment to IAS 12 Income Taxes – Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets for Unrealised Losses* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2017). The amendments clarify that the existence of deductible temporary differences depends solely on a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset and its tax base at the end of the reporting period, and is not affected by possible future changes in the carrying amount or how an amount equivalent to said carrying amount will be accrued in the future. The amendment has no effect on Tecnotree's consolidated financial statements.

• Amendments to IFRS 2 Share-based Payment -Clarification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018). The amendments clarify the accounting treatment of certain kinds of arrangements. They concern three subareas: measurement of cash-settled payment transactions; share-based payment transactions net of withholding tax; and modification of share-based payment transactions from cash-settled to equity-settled.

• Interpretation IFRIC 22 Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration* (effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018). When advance consideration denominated in foreign currency is paid or received for the related asset, income or expense, IAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates does not express an opinion on how the date of transaction should be determined for the purpose of translating said item. The interpretation clarifies that the date of transaction is the date of initial recognition of the advance payment or deferred income. If there are multiple payments or receipts in advance, a date of transaction is established for each. The amendment has no effect on Tecnotree's consolidated financial statements.

• Annual Improvements to IFRSs, collection of amendments 2014–2016* (for IFRS 12, effective for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2017, and for IFRS 1 and IAS 28 for financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018): In the Annual Improvements procedure, all the minor and less urgent changes to the standards are gathered together and carried out once a year. Changes apply to three standards. The effects of the amendments vary depending on the standard but are not material.

Other new or amended standards and interpretations have no effect on the consolidated financial statements.